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Phases of cancer

Each phase determines the extent of the cancer, that is, how large the tumor is and if it has spread.

Phase refers to the extent of the cancer, that is, how large the tumor is, its location, whether it has spread or where and if it affects other parts of the body.



Some classification systems, such as TNM, are used for many types of cancer and by most hospitals and medical centers in their reports.
In the TNM system:
T refers to the size and extent of the main tumor.
N refers to the extent of cancer that has spread to nearby lymph nodes.
M refers to whether there is metastasis, that is, if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
There will also be numbers after each letter that give more details.

* PRIMARY TUMOR (T)
TX: Cannot be measured
T0: Cannot be found
T1, T2, T3, T4: Refers to the size and / or extent of the main tumor. The larger the number, the greater the tumor or what has grown in nearby tissues.

* For REGIONAL LYMPHATIC GANGLES (N), apply the same system as for PRIMARY TUMOR (T).

* DISTANT METALLASIS (M)
MX: Cannot be measured
M0: It has not spread
M1: It has spread


Doctors combine these results and other specific cancer factors to determine the stage of cancer in each person.
PHASE 0. The cancer is located in the place where it started and has not spread to nearby tissues. It is often highly curable, usually removing the tumor by surgery.



PHASE I. The cancer or tumor is small and has not grown in nearby tissues, has not spread to lymph nodes or other parts of the body. It is often called early stage cancer.

PHASE II and III. They indicate cancers or larger tumors that have grown in adjacent tissues. They may have spread to lymph nodes but not to other parts of the body.

PHASE IV The cancer has spread to other organs or parts of the body. It can also be called advanced or metastatic cancer.

For the Institute of Interventional Oncology (IDOI Mexico) it is important to know the phase, because this will help to understand the severity of the cancer and plan the best treatment option.